Healthcare Technology Featured Article

January 09, 2023

Is DSIP An Antioxidant Peptide?

One synthetic peptide that controls several bodily processes and keeps things running smoothly inside is delta sleep-inducing peptide or DSIP. As its name suggests, DSIP is crucial in maintaining a regular sleep schedule and controls many other physiological functions, but is it also an antioxidant peptide?

Neurons, plasma, and other tissues contain DSIP naturally. This neuropeptide modulates neurotransmitter levels in the brain and is known to influence animal electrical activity, leading to delta sleep induction. In addition, it influences the efficacy of different neuropharmacological medications and modulates hormone levels and psychological function.

When did DSIP First Become Known?

Starting in 1963 and continuing until 1977, scientists defined and researched the DSIP peptide extensively. It was first isolated in 1977 by the Schoenenberger Monnier group from the cerebral venous blood of rabbits.

DSIP was once thought to solely serve as a sleep-including factor; however, its advantages and prospective usage in therapeutic sectors, such as pain, insomnia, and withdrawal, have since been found.

In 1984, a substance similar to DSIP was also found in human breast milk, and Professionals successfully extracted it from it over 90% of the time. Natural milk proteins are known to be well absorbed by newborns' digestive systems, but whether DSIP-like material influences infants' sleep pattern is unknown.

What is the Function of DSIP?

Inhibition of Oxidative Damage

Researchers investigated the in vivo mechanism of the DSIP peptide in research performed on rats ranging in age from 2 to 24 months.

Malonic dialdehyde levels in rat tissues and plasma were shown to be reduced after DSIP treatment. As a consequence of lipid peroxidation, malonic dialdehyde has been linked to enhanced oxidative stress when present in high enough concentrations. This finding provided evidence that the antioxidant properties of DSIP in rats are realized via its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation.

Furthermore, DSIP influences many enzyme levels throughout the body by stimulating the endogenous antioxidant system. Antioxidant functions wane with age; hence DSIP's ability to boost them provides geroprotection.

Neurological Repercussions of DSIP

When DSIP was given to male rats, researchers observed increased activity in the brain's cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus.

DSIP boosts neuronal activity in the brain, and research suggests that this effect is mediated through NMDA receptors. The neurological effects of DSIP have been studied extensively; however, it is still unclear how they work.

Functions that take in many variables at once

DSIP has been demonstrated to efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier in the neurological system in vitro investigations, allowing various actions. To only last for 15 minutes, the half-life of the DSIP peptide requires the action of a specialized aminopeptidase enzyme. By forming a combination with other, more giant proteins, endogenous DSIP is shielded from enzymatic degradation and given a longer half-life. Although research is progressing, it is still unclear which protein it connects with and how to best illustrate its impact on the body.

What are the Benefits of DSIP?

Included among DSIP's many advantages and benefits are the following:

  • Controls the cycle of slow-wave sleep
  • Helps control hormone production and secretion via the endocrine system
  • Alleviates tension
  • Does not let the blood pressure drop or the heart rate slow down.
  • Exhibits anti-inflammatory properties
  • Reduces discomfort
  • Possibility of cancer-preventing agent
  • Possibility of using it in epilepsy therapy
  • Moderates the firing of neurons
  • Medication candidate for treating withdrawal symptoms

Impact of DSIP on Animal Sleep

In recent research, professionals investigated the effects of DSIP on cats' sleeping habits.

A total of 10 cats were randomly assigned to either receive a placebo or 7 nmol/kg of exogenous DSIP by a single injection. The cats were injected the peptide into their lateral ventricles, and researchers monitored their vital signs for 8 hours.

The results showed that the sleep and slow-wave sleep (SWS) cycle increased significantly after taking the peptide. The slow-wave sleep (SWS) phase of the sleep-wake cycle occurs in the third stage of sleep and is characterized by deep sleep with no non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM). SWS sleep duration increased during the first hour after DSIP administration, indicating that the substance's effects were rapid and noticeable. After 7 hours, this growth began to taper down. This finding proved that DSIP treatment increased the time spent in deep SWS sleep.

The Stress-Reducing Effects of the DSIP

Examining how DSIP could alter levels of stress hormones in the body was the focus of this research project.

Professionals created experimental stress in the rats used in this investigation by tying their tails in a confined space overnight. These stress tests lasted for five days and 12 hours.

One set of rats received a placebo, while the other five received DSIP. There were six groups in total:

  • A control group
  • A stress group
  • A group was given DSIP an hour before stress experiments
  • A group was given DSIP 24 hours before stress experiments
  • A group was given DSIP an hour before the final stress experiment
  • A group was given DSIP 24 hours after the final stress experiment.

The research found that when DSIP was given, levels of stress-reducing endorphins and corticosterone hormones in the hypothalamus and plasma were increased. Experts enhanced the benefits of the DSIP peptide on stress reduction the earlier it was given.

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